Ken robinson out of our minds pdf


    “Out of Our Minds explains why being creative in today's world is a vital necessity. “For a book called Out of Our Minds, Ken Robinson's illuminated assault on. Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative. Home · Out of Author: Ken Robinson Out of Our Minds: Reason and Madness in the Exploration of Central Africa. Out of Our Minds PDF Summary by Ken Robinson will teach readers why creativity is more important than ever, and show them the way that.

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    Ken Robinson Out Of Our Minds Pdf

    Out of our Minds: Learning to be creative. Editor(s). Sir Ken Robinson. First published:2 January Print ISBN |Online. Out of Our Minds is a genuine challenge to complacency. Ruth Spellman, Chief Executive, Investors in People, UK. I definitely want to meet Ken Robinson. Title: Out of our minds learning to b robinson, ken, Author: gongwen, I add Ken Robinson's absorbing account of creativity to my personal list of gems.

    Newsletter Read I have authored and co-authored a wide range of books , reports and articles on creativity, the arts, education and cultural development. Here's a selection: Reports I have been chairman and principal author of several commissions to promote creativity and innovation in education, business and the community. All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education In , Ken Robinson led a national commission on creativity, education and the economy forthe UK Government bringing together leading business people, scientists, artists and educators. The London Times said: 'This report raises some of the most important issues facing business in the 21st century. It should have every CEO and human resources director thumping the table and demanding action. The resulting blueprint for change, Unlocking Creativity, was adopted by politicians of all parties and by business, education and cultural leaders across the Province.

    Creative development does not take place in a vacuum. Reconnecting feeling and intellect is vital for the development of human resources and for the promotion of creativity. The problems that organisations face are immediate. This is 01omi It also draws these various arguments together into proposals for dealing with the upstream problem.

    It feeds from and into the cultural context in which individuals work. The popular press pro- motes a tireless antagonism between traditional and progressive teach- ing methods and campaigns against liberal education. At best. These schools can take a different approach. They know that parents are sleepless with worry about the quality of education that their children are receiving.

    In the interests of raising standards. In a profoundly ironic way. This is why those who can afford to do so are taking their children out of state education to the independent sector. We also want other things from education. People in education want to pursue a more sophisticated agenda but feel hemmed in and often demoralised by political pressures to raise par- ticular standards.

    It is in the short. Politicians say that this pressure comes from business and is essential to national economic survival. Governments pour huge amounts of money into education on the basis that it is vital to national economic development.

    Educators want to provide a bal- anced education that draws on their own creative energies as teachers and love for their own disciplines. Parents also assume that education will help their children to find work and become economically inde- pendent. All of these groups do have common interests. Yet in my experience parents. This is because of the preoccupation with certain sorts of intellectual skills. They do not realise their potential because they do not know what it is.

    Out of our minds? I have called this book Out of our Minds for three reasons.

    We will not navigate through the complex environment of the future by peering relentlessly into a rear view mirror. In this sense. But the prob- lems of dissatisfaction seem to be deepening as the gap in expectations between all of these groups continues to widen. We live in a world constructed by the ideas. This is what most learners want for them- selves. This is why governments pour such huge resources into it. Education should help us to do this. To pursue this course we would be out of our minds in a more literal sense.

    They are out of their element and out of their minds in that specific sense. These standards were designed for other times and for other purposes. In place of a reasoned debate about the strategies that are needed to face these extraordinary changes. The worlds we live in are created out of our minds as much as from the natural environment.

    For all these reasons. Ken Robinson 01omi This chapter sketches in the changes that are in prospect. We are in a deepening revolution in the work people do.

    These radical transformations call for radical strategies in how we think of and develop human resources. By about But the changes we have seen may be as nothing compared with those to come. The most extraordinary developments may yet come from the merging of information technologies and human intel- ligence.

    In the years or so since the Industrial Revolution began. McKinsey researched 77 large US com- panies in a variety of industries and worked with their human resources departments to understand their talent-building philosophies. Most organisations take a short- term view of training needs.

    There is a massive gap between the skills and abilities that business needs and those that are available in the workforce. To win the war for talent. But too few employees have much trust in the provision by employers of opportunities in continuing education.

    In a rapidly changing environment there is little time and energy for training. It also drew on case studies of 20 companies widely regarded as being rich in talent. This shortage has put a new emphasis on the importance of lifelong learning. The research concluded with a warning to corporate America that com- panies are about to be engaged in a war for senior executive talent that will remain a defining characteristic of the competitive landscape for decades to come.

    Three-quarters of corporate officers said their companies had insufficient talent some- times. Only a third of employers provide training beyond the job. Employers constantly fear that their best talent will be poached by other companies. Better talent is worth fighting for. But at a time when the need for superior talent is increasing.

    This makes them wary of investing in developing their own talent since they fear it will primarily benefit their competitors. Yet most are ill-prepared and even the best are vulner- able. Executives point to a worsening short- age of the people needed to run divisions and manage critical func- tions.

    Small companies exert a powerful pull across the whole executive spectrum. Until now the executive population has grown roughly in line with GDP. In the United States. Ten years ago a high-performer might have changed employers just once or twice in full career. A more complex economy demands more sophis- ticated talent with global acumen. According to 50 senior executive search professionals. It assumes a world with an unlimited supply of talent. Fighting the talent war with the outside world is covering up our failure in terms of people development.

    But supply is moving in the opposite direction: The emergence of efficient capital markets in the United States has enabled the rise of many small and medium-sized companies that are increasingly targeting the same people sought by large companies. For McKinsey the moral is straightforward: But first. Perhaps more alarmingly. Then to attract and retain the people you need. Companies that manage their physical and financial assets with rigour and sophistica- tion have not made their people a priority in the same way.

    McKinsey suggests that executive talent has been the most under- managed corporate asset for the past two decades. That there is an abyss is now beyond question. We will come to the underlying problems shortly and to some of the solutions as we go on.

    That done. As ideas become the main commodity in the new information age. Time magazine As in the rest of the world. Yet there are estimated to be millions of jobs unfilled because of a lack of qualified applicants.

    The chronically high number of jobless. But how? Time magazine concluded that: There is no technological fix for closing the jobs gap. Chip capacity may double every 18 months. There is an acceler- ating demand for educational qualifications of every sort. The other factor 01omi There are two reasons.

    In a survey of the skills gap in the European economy. By it will be seven billion and growing fast. In the population of the world was three bil- lion. But why is German more useful than art? I know it is useful. Languages are useful but is art not? Is it useless? For generations. They clash on the timetable. The problem was my choice of subject option.

    I wanted to do art and German. Now and in the future. About the age of The first is to increase the amount of education that goes on. Governments are right to do this. Education standards should be high and it is obviously a good idea to raise them.

    I was sent to see the head teacher. This seems sensible too. In it was six billion: Most countries have a dual strategy. But standards of what and why? The essential problem is that many governments and organisations seem to think that the best way to prepare for the future is to do better what we did in the past — just to do more of it and to a higher standard.

    I was told at school that I had a problem. The fact is we have to do something else. What is certain is that in global economies that are increasingly dominated by intellectual labour. In Europe and America for example. Populations are not growing evenly.

    The second strategy is to raise standards. I surveyed education systems in 22 countries. Whatever standards are. So why are they so often talked out of them at school? Why are other subjects thought to be so much more useful?

    Useful to what and why? Most national school systems include some art and music: Canada and in many parts of the Far East and Australasia and in fact in most sys- tems based on Western principles.

    The Council of Europe is an intergovernmental organisation based in Strasbourg. And yet young people love the arts and enjoy them. Where has this idea of utility come from. In western systems of education. This pattern is repeated in North America. Someone has to do this sort of thing. The drive to raise standards is squeez- ing the arts even further.

    All attempts to improve education by expanding it or by raising standards will fail if these two sets of assumptions are not completely recon- structed. In In all countries the arts are on the edges of the school curriculum. There were many differences in education in these countries and some striking similarities. It works with 48 member states across Europe including many of the former Soviet Bloc countries and all of the Western Euro- pean states.

    The problem we now face is that this economic model is outmoded and the intellectual model is completely inadequate. This is a very common pat- tern. There is always an economic model and an intellectual model and there is assumed to be a relationship between the two. The old model All national systems of education are based on two underlying models. But they will not provide the answer while we continue to misunderstand the question that this new revolution is presenting.

    Education and training are meant to be the long-term answer for all of those asking how they are to survive the coming turbulence.

    It was only in the 19th century that governments took a serious interest in education and only in the 20th century that it has become established in many countries as a right. For this. This assumption underpinned the whole structure of schooling and higher education. We are caught up in a new economic revolution. For over years this narrative has been true and the system has worked well for those who successfully followed its rules. Many European countries made simi- lar sorts of provision.

    If a person worked hard at school and gained good academic qualifications. Those sent to the secondary modern schools were destined for manual work. The grammar schools were to educate the 20 per cent: It is not working any more. This was based on manufacturing. The reason is the extraordinary nature of technological and economic change. And it has hardly begun. The assumption was clear-cut and accepted. But the whole apparatus of state education is relatively new.

    In Britain. They were given an education that was really a watered-down version of the grammar school curriculum. The pace of developments in computer technol- ogy over the past 50 years has been breathtaking. If the technology of motor cars had developed at the same rate. It could travel at six times the speed of sound. Toffler saw a similar global phenomenon in the effects of rapid social 01omi A second was the cost. It can happen to people who sud- denly find themselves in an environment where all their normal refer- ence points — language.

    Less dignified for a moon landing. It would be capable of about miles per gallon and it would cost you about 80p. In the late s. The developments in computing illustrate two fundamental themes. They sit on your desk top or kitchen table. The idea of culture shock is well known to psychologists. Even a basic computer would have cost hundreds of thousands of pounds — another disincentive.

    Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative

    In computing terms Furbies contained four times the computing power and 30 times the memory of the Apollo Moonlander. Governments and some companies could afford computers but few families could. Now home computers are everywhere. This experience can be profoundly disorienting and can lead in extreme cases to psychosis.

    Political refugees and economic migrants can experience culture shock when they move to a completely new country. He argued that being propelled too quickly into an unfamiliar future could have the same traumatic effects on people. My father was born in And this is the ultimate difference. Take two examples: I was born in Business travellers now routinely fly club class across oceans and continents to attend two or three meetings and then head home for the weekend.

    We no longer feel life as people did in the past. He spent most of his life in Liverpool and never left the UK. In the s. In the Middle Ages. The distinctive feature of change in our own times is the rate and scale of it. He then decided to leave Snitterfield to seek his for- tune in Stratford. The issue was not the fact of change.

    This is three miles away. John Shake- speare. For this acceleration lies behind the impermanence. When I was a young child. My own children have a similarly pitying view of my child- hood in the s and s: There have also been negative consequences. These include the fear parents have of letting children play even in their own neigh- bourhoods. The steam engine made possible vast movements of humanity at speeds never before thought possible.

    James Watt refined the steam engine. According to a recent estimate: In the late 18th century. Since then. It was a major tremor in the social earthquake of the Industrial Revolution. All in less than 80 years. These would represent a mile queue of parked cars six lanes wide. This changed everything. I would play 01omi To get some sense of the pace of change. There have been many benefits in the growth of mobility. Until three minutes ago. By the age of 12 they had been to more countries than I had visited at the age of The steam engine vastly increased the speed and power of transport by road and sea and it made possible the development of railways.

    There was no fear that anything disastrous would befall me. Written documents had to be copied by hand or they existed in single copies. He then announced sombrely: Only a privileged few had access to them and only those few needed to be able to read. Imagine that whole period in terms of the 60 minutes on a clock face with each minute equivalent to fifty years.

    Compare this with our own saturated processes of news-reporting 24 hours a day on a multitude of channels and media. These changes in mobility are matched by the increasing speed of communication. There is no news. Human beings have had access to writing systems of various sorts for at least years. People communi- cated with handmade marks on surfaces.

    In people knew who their neighbours were. He joined the BBC in the s at a time when there was no regular news bulletin. There is a ferociously hungry news industry which has developed its own momentum for breaking and if necessary generating news stories around the clock. In his first week. Now all com- munities are permeable and often transitory.

    For most of the past years writing systems hardly changed at all. All of this adds to a general sense of events and crisis which permeates 21st century culture. This is not because there is more going on in the world in the 21st century than there was in the middle of the 20th century. The presenter sat at the microphone and waited until the time signal had finished. Getting the message A well-known British journalist was reminiscing about his early days in radio news.

    Nowadays parents are increasingly frightened of dan- gers to their children and drive them everywhere and keep them under almost constant surveillance. About years ago — 11 minutes ago on our clock — Gutenberg invented the printing press.

    This invention changed everything. Sud- denly it was possible for documents to be reproduced in volume and distributed far and wide. Printing opened up the world of ideas to every- one, and generated a universal appetite for literacy.

    It had vast conse- quences for religion, politics and culture. This was a pivotal moment in the history of communication. Since then the process of change has gath- ered at a furious pace. Think of the major innovations in communication in the past years, and how the gap between them has shortened:. The Internet and mobile phone have revolutionised communications worldwide.

    The Internet is the most powerful and pervasive communi- cation system every devised. In there were 40 million Internet users in the United States and an estimated 10 million users in Asia.

    In there were million users in the United States compared with 45 million in Asia. On current estimates, the number of Asian users will match US users early in the decade with an estimated million users each. Thereafter, Asia is set to overtake the US at a rapid rate. The Internet is an organism with millions upon millions of connec- tions, with millions more being added daily at an ever-faster rate. The connection systems are arranged in patterns that bear more than a strik- ing resemblance to dendritic groupings or ganglia.

    So the Internet can. In the brain, the syn- apses that fire most often have the most robust response. The Internet has a similar kind of behaviour. He wrote Future Shock on a manual typewriter. Most of the formative technologies of the early 21st century came into being in the last 15 years of the 20th century — 20 seconds on our clock face. These are just two examples of the exponential rate of change in our own times, change that is driven by technological innovation.

    With these innovations have come vast and complex cultural changes in how we think, what we believe, how we work and relate to each other. But the technological revolution is far from over. In some ways, we have seen nothing yet. Let me take two examples that promise to transform the landscape of our lives in the 21st century beyond anything we have seen yet: Nanotechnology is the manipulation of very small things indeed. Nano- technologists are building machines by assembling individual atoms and molecules.

    To measure the vast distances of space, scientists use the light year, the distance that light travels in a year, or miles. I asked a professor of nanotechnology what they use to measure the unthinkably small distances of nanospace?

    He said it was the nanometre. A nanometre is a billionth of a metre. Mathemati- cally this is 10—9 metre or 0. It takes them all day to grow about a millimetre. Beards are slow, languid things and our lan- guage reflects this. We now have a way of grasping of how slow they are — about a nanometre a second.

    Nanotechnology makes it feasible to shrink existing personal com- puters to the size of a wristwatch. Soon they could be worn on the body and be powered by the surface electricity of your skin. The problem is what to do with the monitor: One solution is retinal projec- tors.

    These have been developed particularly for the entertainment industry for use with virtual reality systems. They use small low level lasers and are worn on something like spectacle frames. They project the computer display directly onto the retina so that it is seen in your eye. A version of this technology is already in use in advanced aircraft systems such as the Stealth Bomber.

    Using these systems, pilots see the navigation displays from the on-board com- puters projected onto the inside of their visors. They are able to affect the direction of the aircraft by moving their eyes. Nanotechnology is opening up extraordinary new horizons. It prom- ises a sharp upward curve in computing and information systems. Nanotechnology makes possible a new phase of miniaturisation.

    In , the inside of a computer was full of bulky glass valves. In the transistor was invented and this helped to shrink the computer enormously. In , the silicon chip was devel- oped and computers shrank again.

    These inventions reduced the size of computers, but they also vastly increased their speed and power. Chil- dren now have toys in their bedrooms that have more computing power than the s mainframes.

    It has been estimated that each year some- thing in the order of microchips are being manufactured. This is roughly equivalent to the world population of ants. This extraordinary rate of production mirrors the vast range of applications for which microchips are now being used.

    The extreme miniaturisation of com- puter systems will revolutionise how and why we use them. Already in development are intelligent fridges, microwaves, cars and personal health monitors.


    Telstar relays a television signal. Operating system bought from Gates. Number of hosts i. Micro- soft Word launched. Hypertext system emerges on Inter- net. Microchips that can store , characters on a sliver of silicon 15 mm by 5 mm are invented in Japan. If the child strayed away from a pre-programmed route while out shopping or on the way to school.

    Shoes could have smart gadgets inside that turn the action of walking or running into enough energy to power a wearable computer. This dis- covery has triggered an avalanche of research and development in mate- rial sciences that could change everything in engineering. A watch could fold out two arms as aerials allowing the timepiece to double as a mobile phone.

    UK banks begin to offer online banking serv- ices. Voice- activated necklaces have been developed that do a similar job and pro- vide Internet radio services. Information from the British Film Institute New applications will include wearable computers.

    Shirts could have sensors that monitor heartbeat and other vital signs via cuff links. Hints of serious ill health could be relayed from the shirt to the earrings that act as satellite transmitters to a doctor. The third form of carbon is a nanotube of 01omi Using so-called mind-mapping techniques. There are some obvious drawbacks. They have immense significance for how we think about creativity.

    This molecule has remarkable qualities. Neuroscientists are now looking in two related directions. Buildings could be erected that go through the atmosphere and stay up: Just think A second new frontier is our understanding of the brain.

    Motor cars and trains could be a fraction of their current weight with much greater fuel economies through the use of solar power. Fuller made extensive use of geodesic shapes and structures which are similar to the structures of the C60 molecule. The technologies of brain scanning have made it possible for the first time to study the proc- esses of living brains.

    These studies could lead to wholly new approaches in medicine. There is an immediate point to make. It is times stronger than steel. Brain scanning allows the study of living brains. It would make possible the construction of aeroplanes 20 or 50 times the present size and much more fuel-efficient. It is that some of the most exciting and extraordinary implica- tions of current research in these different fields — information systems.

    Different theories have come and gone about the functions of different regions of the brain and about how the physical brain relates to human thought. They are also studying the processes of the brain at molecu- lar level including the transfer of electrical charges at the neural synapses.

    The present limitations are set by the strength and weight of existing steels and fibres. If it can be produced in industrial quantities. Information systems are being revolutionised by innovations in nano- technology. The very boundaries of philosophical questions concerning where life ends and something else. It would be difficult to envision a more encompassing realm of future development than nanotechnology.

    It is now possible to conceive of information technologies modelled on the neural processes of the brain. Once nanotechnol- ogy makes it possible to synthesise any physical object cheaply and easily.

    Ostman notes that artificially growing skin cultures are being pro- duced at New York University and research in the development of an organic artificial heart is taking place in several different locations. A new generation of computers is being conceived that will be based not on digital codes and silicon but on organic processes and DNA: Once we have mechanical components such as gears.

    According to Ostman. At Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. In medical applications. He recognised that technologies were doubling the density of transis- tors on integrated circuit every 12 months. A retinal implant is being developed in the United States that is intended to pro- vide at least some visual perception in blind individuals by replacing certain visual processing circuits of the brain.

    In the mids Moore revised his observation of doubling time to a more accurate estimate of about 24 months and that trend has persisted throughout the s.

    Today significant technological transforma- tions take just a few years. Gordon Moore was a co-founder of Intel in the mids. They take a long time to get going. A handful of different types of so-called molecular computing systems are being investigated.

    This meant computers were periodically doubling both in capacity and in speed per unit cost. It is estimated that within the next ten years the intelligence of machines could exceed that of humans. As Kurzweil points out. Advancement in the first two decades of the 20th century matched that of the entire 19th century. By that time 01omi Within several decades.

    Cochlear implants are available to restore hearing. If this happens. Computing technology is experiencing the same exponential growth. After decades of devoted service. By For example. The new computer architectures will continue the exponential growth of computing. Computer speed per unit cost doubled every three years between and and every two years between and and is now doubling every year.

    So if you have an important exam coming up you might in future be able to pop down to the shops and download another 60 megabytes of RAM.

    The intel- ligence that we are now creating in computers will soon exceed the intelligence of its creators. Scholarly papers are now being written about ways of extending human memory by implanting microprocessors into the brain. And when that happens we might ask: An evolutionary process accelerates because it builds on its own means for further evolution.

    Or it may be possible to have a language implant. Instead of spending five years 01omi Humanoid robots that walk and have lifelike facial expressions are already being developed in several laboratories in Tokyo.

    We will provide a variety of bodies for our machines too. Once again. New technologies are affecting everything as they always have done.

    This may sound far-fetched. In the past 15 years the economies of the developed world have shifted on their axis. It would be possible to attend several meetings simultaneously or not leave the house at all while travelling in various parts of the planet. The real point is that science and technology are not self-contained. The impossible yesterday is routine today. If someone had told you 15 years ago that you could communicate through your television with the Library of Con- gress.

    For a number of years.

    Now we take it for granted. Whereas the dominant global corporations used to be concerned with industry and manufacturing. New work for old From pre-history to the present day. Think first of the effects on business and the economy. I remember reading an article about a man in San Francisco who was launching a lawsuit demanding his constitutional right to be cloned. He clearly believed that as cloning was available he was entitled as a citizen and taxpayer to be reproduced in whatever numbers best suited him.

    They affect everything. Developments in genetics are throwing up profound issues in ethics that were inconceivable Internet banking has become a reality. This was made possible by the computerisation of the financial markets and the synchronisation of the global economies. Lou Gerstner. Professor David Reibstein. Among the first casualties are the front-line sales forces of the financial sectors. In it was less than 10 per cent. Associate Dean at the Wharton School.

    At the London Business School. Since the Big Bang in London in The huge growth in financial services in the s and 90s was generated by a relatively small but highly paid labour force. Chief Executive of IBM. Internet trading has shattered the traditional structures of the financial services: Most of this will not be spent on hardware or software but on con- sultancy. Along the way. All of this in less than 15 years. McKinsey claimed to have more than 60 per cent of its London consultants employed on e-commerce projects in We now have a multifaceted finan- cial services sector that would have been unimaginable 20 years ago.

    Established banks have been swallowed up by international corporations. According to a Times report. Many Internet companies simply did not have the infrastructure to provide the services they offered.

    This was partly because in the frenzy to invest in the new forms of trading. A great deal of this money was misplaced and lost. According to Fortune magazine. These included being able to guarantee that the goods promised would reach the person they were promised to within reasonable time and in good shape. Cisco Systems is a Bay area firm with Many others were offering services that nobody really wanted to have provided.

    This marked an important shift in public and political perceptions about the arts. In a study was published on the economic impor- tance of the arts in Britain. If they charge fees of 3. Internet equity research analyst at Credit Suisse First Boston. The result is a land rush to set up B2B marketplaces to stake out some part of this new commercial landscape.

    Traditionally the visual and per- forming arts had been seen as interesting but not useful. Unlike many other indus- trial sectors. The study made an impor- tant new argument: The following year it published an assessment of the economic significance of this sector. October The creative industries One of the fastest-growing areas of the UK economy is the so-called cre- ative industries.

    The arts received public money. In this contribution was estimated at six billion pounds per year to GDP. Of this. The communications revolution. These new forms of work are creating a demand for new sorts of skill and aptitude.

    Equipment suppliers have risen up on a tide of investment. Ten years ago. Televi- sion and film production for example. They are creative fields of huge significance.

    It is now one of the fastest-growing markets in Europe. The future fortunes of the telecommunications market are far from certain: This picture is comparable in the United States. This sector has also been subject to immense fluctuations in financial fortunes. This is not true of the financial services. As information 01omi All of these technologies are based on fundamental advances in the sciences and in engineering.

    The intellectual property sector is even more significant when patents from science and technology are included: Continu- ing developments in information technology will lead inevitably to a convergence of Internet access with mobile phone systems.

    The creative industries are labour-intensive and need many different types of specialist skill. Telecommunications One of the fastest-growing global industries is telecommunications. As the finan- cial significance of this sector grows. They are growing at twice the rate of the economy as a whole.

    Here again we are faced with an exponential curve of change. According to the UN. This bil- lion increase in 12 years was the most rapid increase ever. India has fewer inhabitants million but a higher annual growth rate of about 1.

    The United Nations medium projections show that another billion people will be added in just 14 years and that world population will be about 9. It took years to reach the second billion in The global workforce is changing in size and shape. Population growth Technological change is one reason for companies to look again at how they manage and develop human resources. At that rate the population will double in 19 years unless there is a significant decline in fertility or increase 01omi But there is another: The population of the African continent is growing at 2.

    The report found that the grey revolution was already well underway. The over 50s were returning to work faster than the rest of the population as demand for their skills ratcheted up.

    The changing patterns and demography of world population will have profound effects on the patterns of economic activity and trade. Employers looking to their traditional source of labour — young workers — will find that the spring is running dry. Germany and the Czech Republic in the late s. In the four years from to Legal and illegal migrants accounted for one quarter of population growth during the s and about one-third of growth during the s. In some countries net immigration provides the only population growth.

    This makes them highly effective new-economy workers. According to the US Census Bureau projections. From to Deaths exceeded births in 13 European countries including Russia. The US population increased by an esti- mated 2. If it did. Advances in new technology mean that it is now possible for more people to work from home than ever before. It is important to grasp the unpredictability of many technological and economic developments.

    According to a government spokesman: Fewer women than men wanted to work from home.

    This is not because they want to spend more time with their families but because they believe they can better meet the demands of their jobs and be more effective away from the distractions of the workplace. Social and economic evolution rarely takes place in a straight and predictable line. There can be increases in efficiency and improvements in quality of life.

    Progress 01omi A recent report presented evidence from the dot-com sector to show that even youthful start-up companies in the new technol- ogy industries have started looking for older workers to provide the experience and strategic vision needed for survival.

    The research also shows a huge demand for flexible working hours and a willingness on the part of employers to go along with these arrange- ments. Home alone The numbers of workers paid for work at home in the United States rose from 1. The paperless office? The development of the Internet. As Toby Marchant argues. In Europe. A good example of this is the fate of the widespread predictions of the paperless office.

    So what is driving the growth in office paper sales? There are two factors. Email speeds communication but it encourages a more thoughtless process of writing — what has been called a stream of unconsciousness. In fact. Toby Marchant. There are around 11 million users of the Internet in the UK and that figure is increasing by about The first is information.

    The old way was print and distribute. This overall increase conceals some intriguing underlying trends. With these new electronic media. The medicine you use when you are sick, the bed you sleep on, and every single thing that surrounds you is such a product as well.

    Everything in this world has once been invented, and once created has been continuously improved. For such advancements, creativity is essential. Everyone can be creative since creativity can be taught. Creativity is a potential which everyone can choose to use. Sadly, our education does not teach us to be creative, but only feeds are facts we need to memorize.

    However, as the world is changing drastically, creativity is not only needed but an essential business skill to learn. The competitive edge will soon become so strong, that it will only matter which company has the best creative ideas.

    "Out of Our Minds. Learning to be Creative" скачать fb2, rtf, epub, pdf, txt книгу Robinson Ken

    Also, people will have to get used to changing jobs, since having just one vocation over the course of an entire working career, will be something impossible.

    Adaptability and flexibility will be the traits that will decide who survives in the contemporary market. To be able to change the working environment, the world needs first to change the educational system we already mentioned. In the traditional educational system, each stage of education builds upon the previous one. Successful students are those who have successfully progressed through all logical stages, as imagined.

    Schools emphasize mathematics and pay less attention to humanities, and the least attention to art. However, the world has changed so much that this system is no longer as useful as it once was. What we see nowadays are huge numbers of graduates, who are not actually ready for the real requirements that come with a job and a transformed market.

    So, the change has to happen, especially in the field of creativity. Self-expression, and the ability to think creatively are crucial for the workers of the future. Just think about it. What is the difference between humans and other animals? Is it the ability produce sounds, or the ability to walk on two feet? No, it is not. What sets us apart is our brain and most of all the scope of our imagination.

    Humans use imagination to see way beyond the present moment and circumstances. People can travel in the past through their memories, understand the present by considering different perspectives, and anticipate the future by creating different possible scenarios. Creativity is imagination at work. It enables people to see more than just a piece of wood in front of them: they can see a table, a chair, or something else that can make life easier and more comfortable.

    That is the same with every material, with every sound and every little detail that surrounds us. When people put their creative ideas into practice, innovation happens.

    This world is built on innovative practices. So, forget about filling up your mind with endless lists of facts.

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